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Proceeding from criticism of traditional synthetic and analytical thinking, Popper offers new criterion of knowledge which it calls "criterion of falsifiability". The theory only then scientifically is also rational when it can be forged. Between verification (confirmation) and falsification there is an obvious asymmetry. Billions of confirmations are not capable to immortalize the theory. One

The ideological installations of Popper which refracted in his interpretation of quantum mechanics are that in brief. However the realism (is more exact — "the third point of view") and a kosmologizm of popperovsky approach to quantum mechanics speak about that conceptual equipment which was applied by Popper at interpretation of this theory too little. The philosophy of quantum mechanics of Popper on closer examination finds, at least, two conceptual layers reflecting his ideological evolution. Involving two logically independent interpretations of quantum mechanics, we receive tools for identification of these layers in their ideological relation to other interpretations of the quantum theory, and also to these or those treatments and solutions of known paradoxes of this theory.

Efforts of positivism to use the logical device to the analysis of knowledge, expressed in the form of narrative offers, did not lead to scientifically significant results; they faced such problems, to resolve which it was impossible within the reduktsionistsky approach to knowledge and knowledge accepted by it. In particular, not clearly, why not all statements of science become basic, but only some? What criterion of their selection? What their heuristic opportunities and gnoseological prospects? What mechanism of very tectonics of scientific knowledge?

Popper in the interpretation of quantum mechanics — the bright opponent of the Copenhagen approach formulated by N. Bohr, W. Heisenberg, V. Paulie, and also partly M. Born and P. A. M. Dirac. In this regard its position is similar to a position of such largest physicists of the present who made a contribution to development of quantum mechanics as A. Einstein and E. Schrödinger.